Nanopharmacology is a new branch of pharmacology which deals with the application of nanotechnology in the field of nanomedicine. This is a potential step towards curing and prevention of disease by using molecular knowledge about human body and molecular tools. Nanopharmacology studies the interaction between nanoscale drugs and proteins such as DNA, RNA and cells & tissues. It also studies the interaction between physiological systems and traditional drugs at nanoscale level.
Nanoparticles are solid colloidal particles that include both nanospheres and nanocapsules. Nanocapsule is any nanoparticles that consist of a shell and a space in which desired substances may be placed. It is made up of a nontoxic polymer. They are also known to be drug delivery agents in the size range of 10-1000 nm. These capsules are made up of molecules called as phospholipids such as liposomes. Now-a-days many other materials such as variety of polymers have been used to make nanocapsules by self assembly process. Polymeric capsules are studied extensively as particulate carriers in the medical and pharmaceutical fields as they act as good drug delivery systems as a result of their sustained and control release property and subcellular size.
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The ultrafine size of nanocapsules itself is one of the useful function as the finer drug are suitable to be absorbed easily through biological systems. The special features and functions of nanoparticles include slow release: the capsules releases drugs molecules slower over a long period of time, quick release: the capsule shell breaks and comes in contact with a surface, specific release: the shell is designed to break open when a molecule receptor binds to a specific chemical and moisture release: the shell breaks down and releases drug in the presence of water among other features. The state of the art nanocapsulation medications include drugs deliver to specific locations within the body, cuts down on the amount of drug per dose and reduces the risk of side effects. The only limitation is that it is designed to target pre-determined areas.
Cancer, neutraceuticals, ethyl alcohol absorption, food usage and self healing materials are the major applications of nanocapsules. Water soluble polymer shells are manufactured to deliver a protein known as apoptin into cancer cells. Neutraceuticals are substances which are placed into food to enhance nutrition. The smaller the nanocarrier, the better the delivery particles and solubility of neutraceuticals. Nanocapsulation in foods includes the changing of texture, coloring, flavoring and stability in shelf life. Nanocapsules are known to reduce damage that is caused by high loads for components in microelectronics, polymeric coatings and adhesives.
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Growing pharmaceutical industry along with the rising demand for nanocapsules are expected to be the major factor driving the global nanocapsules industry. The growing demand from the end user industry is also expected to boost demand for nanocapsules in the near future.
Asia Pacific is expected to be the largest consumer of nanocapsules due to growing pharmaceutical industries in the region. North America and Europe are also expected to boost demand for nanocapsules owing to the growing demand from the end-user industries for various applications.
Some of the major players profiled for global nanocapsules market include: Capsulation, Sanzyme Ltd, PlasmaChem GmbH, NoCamels, Indian Instruments Manufacturing Company, Encap, Sintef, and Carlina Technologies among others.