Epinephrine or adrenaline is a hormone secreted by adrenal glands in the blood stream. It is one of the two common hormones (the other being glucagon) that is responsible for glycogen breakdown. Secretion of epinephrine is characterized by the presence of extreme emotions such as anxiety or anger thereby resulting in elevated levels of blood pressure along with increased muscle strength and high sugar metabolism. Under strenuous conditions signals are transmitted to brain and brain in turn sends nerve impulses to the adrenal glands in the kidneys and result in the release or secretion of epinephrine. The presence of this hormone is essential for the body to maintain cardiovascular homeostasis as epinephrine can divert blood to tissues under stress. Epinephrine is used as a vasoconstrictor in shock, as a stimulant during cardiac arrest and as an antispasmodic and bronchodilator in bronchial asthma.
During cardiac arrest, there is a need for maximum amount of blood flow in the coronary artery and this is facilitated when epinephrine is injected into an intravenous solution. Epinephrine has effects on various parts of the body such as liver, skin, heart and lungs. For instance, in lungs epinephrine causes the relaxation of smooth muscles of lungs. Patients suffering from asthma have constricted lung passages that are prone to inflammation and swelling. This swelling result in coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and due to inhalation of epinephrine in small doses causes the widening of the bronchial tubes thereby allowing the air to pass through and provides short term relief.
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Epinephrine injections are commonly used against life threatening allergic reactions caused by medications, insect bites and stings. Epinephrine injections are available as prefilled automatic injection device with the hormone in the liquid form. Epinephrine is a class of medications called as alpha and beta adrenergic agonists and these medications work by tightening the blood vessels and by relaxing the muscles in the airways. The direction for preparing and use of the injectors is dependent on different brands available in the market. This injection is usually administered on the thighs and effects of this medication are fast and quick but not long lasting. Epinephrine has both mild and serious side effects such as high blood pressure, severe headache, blurred vision, chest pain, uneven heartbeats, dizziness, nausea and vomiting.
The market for epinephrine auto-injector market exhibits tremendous growth potential owing to several technological advances towards development of innovative epinephrine injectors. Epinephrine auto injectors market can be analyzed on the basis of the product penetration and availability across the four major geographical regions namely North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and RoW. Adrenaclick, EpiPen Auto-Injector, Adrenalin Chloride Solution and EpiPen Jr. Auto-Injector, epinephrine lidocaine hydrochloride are some of the brands of epinephrine autoinjectors.
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Some of the major factors favoring the growth of this market are increasing number of patient population susceptible to several allergic reactions along with increased focus of the market players towards development of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) free epinephrine auto-injectors. This is majorly due to the ban on the use of CFC as a propellant inhaler by the U.S. Government.
In addition, continuous product modifications, increased need and demand of automatic injection devices further propel the growth and development of epinephrine auto injectors market. On the contrary, the side effects caused by epinephrine medications pose a challenge to the growth of the market. Owing to the potential side effects (dizziness, shortness of breath and severe headache) of epinephrine therapy, doctors recommend or prescribe other alternative pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy against allergic reactions. The key market players operating in this market are Abbott Laboratories, Lincoln Medical, Ltd., Mylan, Inc., Sanofi SA, Amedra Pharmaceuticals LLC and ALK Abello A/S.